## Abstract

Zero-Knowledge PCPs (ZK-PCPs; Kilian, Petrank, and Tardos, STOC ‘97) are PCPs with the additional zero-knowledge guarantee that the view of any (possibly malicious) verifier making a bounded number of queries to the proof can be efficiently simulated up to a small statistical distance. Similarly, ZK-PCPs of Proximity (ZK-PCPPs; Ishai and Weiss, TCC ‘14) are PCPPs in which the view of an adversarial verifier can be efficiently simulated with few queries to the input. Previous ZK-PCP constructions obtained an exponential gap between the query complexity q of the honest verifier, and the bound q^{∗} on the queries of a malicious verifier (i.e., q= polylog (q^{∗})), but required either exponential-time simulation, or adaptive honest verification. This should be contrasted with standard PCPs, that can be verified non-adaptively (i.e., with a single round of queries to the proof). The problem of constructing such ZK-PCPs, even whenq^{∗}= q, has remained open since they were first introduced more than 2 decades ago. This question is also open for ZK-PCPPs, for which no construction with non-adaptive honest verification is known (not even with exponential-time simulation). We resolve this question by constructing the first ZK-PCPs and ZK-PCPPs which simultaneously achieve efficient zero-knowledge simulation and non-adaptive honest verification. Our schemes have a square-root query gap, namely q∗/q=O(n), where n is the input length. Our constructions combine the “MPC-in-the-head” technique (Ishai et al., STOC ‘07) with leakage-resilient secret sharing. Specifically, we use the MPC-in-the-head technique to construct a ZK-PCP variant over a large alphabet, then employ leakage-resilient secret sharing to design a new alphabet reduction for ZK-PCPs which preserves zero-knowledge.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 23 |

Journal | Journal of Cryptology |

Volume | 35 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Oct 2022 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2022, International Association for Cryptologic Research.

## Keywords

- Leakage resilience
- Probabilistically checkable proofs
- Probabilistically checkable proofs of proximity
- Secret sharing
- Secure multi-party computation
- Zero knowledge