CuInSe2 photoanodes can be optimized for use in electrochemical photovoltaic cells, containing aqueous polyiodide as the electrolyte, by wet chemical etching in Br2MeOH and subsequent thermal treatment (air oxidation). Surface analyses show the formation of a rather clean, Cu-depleted surface with some adsorbed oxygen after Br2/MeOH etch, and the formation of indium-oxygen bonds after thermal treatment, in accordance with previous studies that show indium oxides to be the native ones on this semiconductor. Samples that underwent photoanodic decomposition in the iodide electrolyte and those that were purposely decomposed in acetonitrile showed severe to near-total Cu depletion near their surface and the presence of lower valent Se. These data complement those from solution analyses and from electrochemical studies, to characterize the preferred decomposition path of CuInSe2 sufficiently to stabilize this type of photoelectrochemical cell. Our conclusions are based on the use of Auger parameters and, to a lesser extent, on empirical comparison of x-ray induced Auger electron line shapes, because of the difficulty in extracting unambiguous conclusions from x-ray photoelectron binding energies only.