X-ray hypersatellite spectra of hollow atoms

S. Huotari, K. Hämäläinen, R. Diamant, R. Sharon, C. C. Kao, M. Deutsch

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The Khα1,2 and Khβ 1,3 hypersatellites (HS), originating in transitions with a double K vacancy as the initial state, have been studied using photoexcitation by monochromatic synchrotron radiation. High-resolution emission spectra, their excitation energy threshold and their evolution with the exciting photon energy from threshold to saturation have been measured for a range of elements. The analysis, done in conjunction with ab initio Dirac-Fock calculations including QED corrections, reveals a good overall agreement between the theory and the experiment. However, small deviations are found, and assigned to an incomplete accounting for the intermediacy of the coupling scheme. The incident-photon energy dependence of the cross-section suggests a pure shake-off (SO) process for the creation of the second K hole in all measured elements. The intensity evolution deviates significantly from the predictions of the regnant theoretical model of Thomas and has a surprisingly large saturation range, which still lacks a theoretical explanation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-297
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
Issue numberSPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Jul 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Beamtime at the ESRF and NSLS is gratefully acknowledged. We thank J.-P. Rueff, T. Buslaps and V. Honkimäki (ESRF) and Z. Yin and L. Berman (NSLS) for expert advice and assistance. This work is supported by the Israel Science Foundation, Jerusalem (M.D.) and the Academy of Finland (contracts no. 201291/40732) (K.H. and S.H.).


  • Hollow atom
  • Hypersatellite
  • Multielectronic transitions


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