Vertical and horizontal transmission of tilapia larvae encephalitis virus: The bad and the ugly

Michael S. Sinyakov, Sandro Belotsky, Mark Shlapobersky, Ramy R. Avtalion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Impairment of innate immunity in tilapia larvae after vertical and horizontal infection with the newly characterized tilapia larvae encephalitis virus (TLEV) was accessed by evaluation of cell-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in affected fish with the use of horseradish peroxidase-amplified luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The priming in-vivo infection with TLEV resulted in downregulation of ROS response in both vertically- and horizontally-infected fish; this suppression was further exacerbated by specific in-vitro booster infection with the same virus. Application of Ca ionophore and phorbol myristate acetate as alternative nonspecific boosters enabled restoration of ROS release in vertically-infected but not in horizontally-infected larvae. The results indicate severe TLEV-imposed phagocyte dysfunction in affected larvae. The difference in restoration potential of ROS production after vertical and horizontal virus transmission is interpreted in the frame of principal distinctions between the two modes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)228-233
Number of pages6
Issue number1
StatePublished - 5 Feb 2011


  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Tilapia
  • Virus encephalitis
  • Virus transmission


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