Universal converse flexoelectricity in dielectric materials via varying electric field direction

Saurav Sharma, Rajeev Kumar, Rahul Vaish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Flexoelectricity is a symmetry independent electromechanical coupling phenomenon that outperforms piezoelectricity at micro and nanoscales due to its size-dependent behavior arising from gradient terms in its constitutive relations. However, due to this gradient term flexoelectricity, to exhibit itself, requires specially designed geometry or material composition of the dielectric material. First of its kind, the present study put forward a novel strategy of achieving electric field gradient and thereby converse flexoelectricity, independent of geometry and material composition of the material. The spatial variation of the electric field is established inside the dielectric material, Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 (BST), by manipulating electrical boundary conditions. Three unique patterns of electrode placement are suggested to achieve this spatial variation. This varying direction of electric field gives rise to electric field gradient, the prerequisite of converse flexoelectricity. A multi-physics coupling based theoretical framework is established to solve the flexoelectric actuation by employing isogeometric analysis (IGA). Electromechanically coupled equations of flexoelectricity are solved to obtain the electric field distribution and the resulting displacements thereby. The maximum displacements of 0.2 nm and 2.36 nm are obtained with patterns I and II, respectively, while pattern III can yield up to 85 nm of maximum displacement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-128
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Smart and Nano Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Converse flexoelectricity
  • electric field direction
  • electrical boundary conditions
  • isogeometric analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Universal converse flexoelectricity in dielectric materials via varying electric field direction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this