Ultrahigh Bulk Photovoltaic Effect Responsivity in Thin Films: Unexpected Behavior in a Classic Ferroelectric Material

Or Shafir, Andrew L. Bennett-Jackson, Alexandria R. Will-Cole, Atanu Samanta, Dongfang Chen, Adrian Podpirka, Aaron Burger, Liyan Wu, Eduardo Lupi Sosa, Lane W. Martin, Jonathan E. Spanier, Ilya Grinberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPE) has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to generate photovoltages above the bandgap and reports of highly enhanced photovoltaic current when using nanoscale absorbers or nanoscale electrodes, which, however, do not lend themselves to practical, scalable implementation. Herein, it is shown that a strikingly high BPE photoresponse can be achieved in an ordinary thin-film configuration merely by tuning fundamental ferroelectric properties. Nonmonotonic dependence of the responsivity (RSC) on the ferroelectric polarization is observed and at the optimal value of the film polarization, a more than three orders of magnitude increase in the RSC from the bulk BaTiO3 value is obtained, reaching RSC close to 10−2 A W−1, the highest value reported to date for the archetypical ferroelectric BaTiO3 films. Results challenge the applicability of standard first-principles-based descriptions of BPE to thin films and the inherent weakness of BPE in ferroelectric thin films.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300294
JournalSolar RRL
Volume7
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Solar RRL published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Funding

O.S., A.L.B.‐J., and A.R.W.‐C. contributed equally to this work. The authors thank V. Fridkin, R. Agarwal, and M.W. Cole for discussions. This work was supported at Bar‐Ilan University and Drexel University by the NSF‐BSF under grant no. CBET 1705440. The authors also acknowledge support at Bar‐Ilan, Drexel, and the University of California at Berkeley from the ARO under grant no. W911NF‐21‐1‐0126, from the NSF at Drexel under grant no. DMR 1608887, and UC Berkeley under grant no. DMR 2102895. A.L.B‐J. acknowledges support from the National Workforce Diversity Pipeline program of the Dept. of HHS under grant. no. CPIMP151091. L.W.M. and J.E.S acknowledge support from the Army/ARL under Collaborative for Hierarchical Agile and Responsive Materials (CHARM) under cooperative agreement W911NF‐19‐2‐0119 and from the Director's Innovation Initiative under 21‐C‐0090. The authors also acknowledge the Singh Center for Nanotechnology by the NSF Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program under grant no. NNCI‐1542153, the Drexel University Materials Characterization Facility (NSF DMR 1040166), and K. Chen, X. Xi, and the Temple University College of Science and Technology Research Facilities. O.S., A.L.B.-J., and A.R.W.-C. contributed equally to this work. The authors thank V. Fridkin, R. Agarwal, and M.W. Cole for discussions. This work was supported at Bar-Ilan University and Drexel University by the NSF-BSF under grant no. CBET 1705440. The authors also acknowledge support at Bar-Ilan, Drexel, and the University of California at Berkeley from the ARO under grant no. W911NF-21-1-0126, from the NSF at Drexel under grant no. DMR 1608887, and UC Berkeley under grant no. DMR 2102895. A.L.B-J. acknowledges support from the National Workforce Diversity Pipeline program of the Dept. of HHS under grant. no. CPIMP151091. L.W.M. and J.E.S acknowledge support from the Army/ARL under Collaborative for Hierarchical Agile and Responsive Materials (CHARM) under cooperative agreement W911NF-19-2-0119 and from the Director's Innovation Initiative under 21-C-0090. The authors also acknowledge the Singh Center for Nanotechnology by the NSF Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program under grant no. NNCI-1542153, the Drexel University Materials Characterization Facility (NSF DMR 1040166), and K. Chen, X. Xi, and the Temple University College of Science and Technology Research Facilities.

FundersFunder number
Bar‐Ilan University and Drexel University
Dept. of HHSW911NF‐19‐2‐0119, NNCI‐1542153, CPIMP151091, 21‐C‐0090
Drexel University Materials Characterization FacilityDMR 1040166
NSF-BSF
NSF‐BSFCBET 1705440
National Workforce Diversity Pipeline
National Science FoundationDMR 1608887
Army Research OfficeW911NF‐21‐1‐0126
University of California BerkeleyDMR 2102895
Drexel University
Temple University
Bar-Ilan University

    Keywords

    • bulk photovoltaic effects
    • ferroelectrics
    • thin films

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