Triple jeopardy: Women’s employment struggles postincarceration

Susan Sered, Maureen Norton-Hawk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


For the past 10 years we have followed the experiences of a cohort of formerly incarcerated Massachusetts women. In contrast to the diversity of their experiences in nearly every aspect of life, not a single woman has been steadily employed throughout the years of our acquaintance. In this article we identify gendered, legal, economic, and health obstacles to employment, show how they intertwine in the women’s lives, and discuss how their employment failures signal failure to embody the attributes of American citizenship more broadly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-280
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Offender Rehabilitation
Issue number4
StatePublished - 19 May 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Massachusetts
  • employment postincarceration
  • female offenders
  • qualitative research
  • reentry


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