Translation and validation of the nomophobia questionnaire in the Italian Language: Exploratory factor analysis

Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Lidia Argumosa-Villar, Joan Boada-Grau, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Caglar Yildirim, Giovanni Del Puente, Abdulla Watad

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Abstract

Background: Nomophobia, which is a neologism derived from the combination of “no mobile,” “phone,” and “phobia” is considered to be a modern situational phobia and indicates a fear of feeling disconnected. Objective: No psychometric scales are available in Italian for investigating such a construct. We therefore planned a translation and validation study of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), which is an instrument developed by Yildirim and Correia. Subjects were recruited via an online survey using a snowball approach. Methods: The NMP-Q was translated from English into Italian using a classical “backwards and forwards” procedure. In order to explore the underlying factor structure of the translated questionnaire, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out. A principal component analysis approach with varimax rotation was performed. Multivariate regression analyses were computed to shed light on the psychological predictors of nomophobia. Results: A sample of 403 subjects volunteered to take part in the study. The average age of participants was 27.91 years (standard deviation 8.63) and the sample was comprised of 160 males (160/403, 39.7%) and 243 females (243/403, 60.3%). Forty-five subjects spent less than 1 hour on their mobile phone per day (45/403, 11.2%), 94 spent between 1 and 2 hours (94/403, 23.3%), 69 spent between 2 and 3 hours (69/403, 17.1%), 58 spent between 3 and 4 hours (58/403, 14.4%), 48 spent between 4 and 5 hours (48/403, 11.9%), 29 spent between 5 and 7 hours (29/403, 7.2%), 36 spent between 7 and 9 hours (36/403, 8.9%), and 24 spent more than 10 hours (24/403, 6.0%). The eigenvalues and scree plot supported a 3-factorial nature of the translated questionnaire. The NMP-Q showed an overall Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.95 (0.94, 0.89, and 0.88 for the three factors). The first factor explained up to 23.32% of the total variance, while the second and third factors explained up to 23.91% and 18.67% of the variance, respectively. The total NMP-Q score correlated with the number of hours spent on a mobile phone. Conclusions: The Italian version of the NMP-Q proved to be reliable.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere24
JournalJMIR mHealth and uHealth
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Lidia Argumosa-Villar, Joan Boada-Grau, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Caglar Yildirim, Giovanni Del Puente, Abdulla Watad.

Keywords

  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Nomophobia
  • Psychometric properties
  • Questionnaire validation

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