Transcatheter arterial embolisation in anticoagulant-related haematoma - A current therapeutic option: A report of four patients and review of the literature

R. Zissin, G. Gayer, E. Kots, M. Ellis, G. Bartal, I. Griton

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46 Scopus citations

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present the computed tomography (CT) and angiographic findings of life-threatening extraperitoneal haemorrhage complicating anticoagulant therapy, treated with transcatheter arterial embolisation (TAE). CT and angiographic studies of four consecutive patients with large, extraperitoneal anticoagulant-related haematomas (ACH) treated by TAE were retrospectively reviewed. Attention was directed to the location of the haematoma and to the possible presence of active arterial extravasation on CT. Four women (mean age 70 years) with large extraperitoneal ACH's demonstrated on CT as extended rectus sheath haematoma in three and expanding iliopsoas haematoma in one, were successfully treated by TAE of the inferior epigastric (n = 3) and lumbar artery (n = 1). Two patients were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced CT as having active arterial bleeding within the haematoma requiring TAE. The other two were referred to angiography because of haemodynamic instability. We also reviewed the imaging findings of 26 patients with extraperitoneal ACH's requiring TAE described in the literature. In the reviewed cases, a female predominance was found, the retroperitoneum was the most frequent site and most patients recovered. To conclude, unenhanced CT has proved an excellent modality for the diagnosis of ACH's. TAE has been shown to be an effective and safe method for managing such haematomas when conservative treatment is insufficient. We suggest that whenever a large extraperitoneal ACH is seen on unenhanced CT, a subsequent contrast-enhanced dynamic scan should be performed, unless contraindicated. Enhanced CT has a supplementary role in detecting active bleeding that provides an indication for angiographic therapy. Awareness of this optional treatment improve patient's outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1321-1327
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Practice
Volume61
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes

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