Toward Malicious Constant-Rate 2PC via Arithmetic Garbling

Carmit Hazay, Yibin Yang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

A recent work by Ball, Li, Lin, and Liu [Eurocrypt’23] presented a new instantiation of the arithmetic garbling paradigm introduced by Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz [FOCS’11]. In particular, Ball et al.’s garbling scheme is the first constant-rate garbled circuit over large enough bounded integer computations, inferring the first constant-round constant-rate secure two-party computation (2PC) over bounded integer computations in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. The main source of difficulty in lifting the security of garbling schemes-based protocols to the malicious setting lies in proving the correctness of the underlying garbling scheme. In this work, we analyze the security of Ball et al.’s scheme in the presence of malicious attacks. We demonstrate an overflow attack, which is inevitable in this computational model, even if the garbled circuit is fully correct. Our attack follows by defining an adversary, corrupting either the garbler or the evaluator, that chooses a bad input and causes the computation to overflow, thus leaking information about the honest party’s input. By utilizing overflow attacks, we show that 1-bit leakage is necessary for achieving security against a malicious garbler, discarding the possibility of achieving full malicious security in this model. We further demonstrate a wider range of overflow attacks against a malicious evaluator with more than 1 bit of leakage.We boost the security level of Ball et al.’s scheme by utilizing two variants of Vector Oblivious Linear Evaluation, denoted by VOLEc and aVOLE. We present the first constant-round constant-rate 2PC protocol over bounded integer computations, in the presence of a malicious garbler with 1-bit leakage and a semi-honest evaluator, in the {VOLEc,aVOLE}-hybrid model and being black-box in the underlying group and ring. Compared to the semi-honest variant, our protocol incurs only a constant factor overhead, both in computation and communication. The constant-round and constant-rate properties hold even in the plain model. We demonstrate an overflow attack, which is inevitable in this computational model, even if the garbled circuit is fully correct. Our attack follows by defining an adversary, corrupting either the garbler or the evaluator, that chooses a bad input and causes the computation to overflow, thus leaking information about the honest party’s input. By utilizing overflow attacks, we show that 1-bit leakage is necessary for achieving security against a malicious garbler, discarding the possibility of achieving full malicious security in this model. We further demonstrate a wider range of overflow attacks against a malicious evaluator with more than 1 bit of leakage. We boost the security level of Ball et al.’s scheme by utilizing two variants of Vector Oblivious Linear Evaluation, denoted by VOLEc and aVOLE. We present the first constant-round constant-rate 2PC protocol over bounded integer computations, in the presence of a malicious garbler with 1-bit leakage and a semi-honest evaluator, in the {VOLEc,aVOLE}-hybrid model and being black-box in the underlying group and ring. Compared to the semi-honest variant, our protocol incurs only a constant factor overhead, both in computation and communication. The constant-round and constant-rate properties hold even in the plain model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2024 - 43rd Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, 2024, Proceedings
EditorsMarc Joye, Gregor Leander
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages401-431
Number of pages31
ISBN (Print)9783031587399
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024
Event43rd Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2024 - Zurich, Switzerland
Duration: 26 May 202430 May 2024

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume14655 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference43rd Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2024
Country/TerritorySwitzerland
CityZurich
Period26/05/2430/05/24

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2024.

Keywords

  • Arithmetic GC
  • Constant-rate 2PC
  • Malicious security

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Toward Malicious Constant-Rate 2PC via Arithmetic Garbling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this