Tolerance of scale-free networks: From friendly to intentional attack strategies

Lazaros K. Gallos, Panos Argyrakis, Armin Bunde, Reuven Cohen, Shlomo Havlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


We study the tolerance of a scale-free network (having a connectivity distribution P(k)∼k) under systematic variation of the attack strategy. In an attack, the probability that a given node is destroyed, depends on the number of its links k via W(k)∼kα, where α varies from -∞ (most harmless attack) to +∞ (most harmful "intentional" attack). We show that the critical fraction p c needed to disintegrate the network increases monotonically when α is decreased and study how at pc the topology of the diluted network depends on the attack strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-509
Number of pages6
JournalPhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
Issue number3-4 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by a grant from the Instituto Carlos III – Spanish Government (PI13/01782) and by a grant from Fundación Salud 2000 (2015). J.M.M. was supported by a Sara Borrell Fellowship from the Instituto Carlos III.


This work was supported by the DAAD, an IKYDA fellowship and by the Israel Science Foundation.

FundersFunder number
Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst
Israel Science Foundation


    • Attacks
    • Scale-free networks
    • Structural properties


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