Three-dimensionality as an effective mode of representation for expressing sequential time perception

Sigal Eoen, David Passig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The process of developing concepts of time continues from age 5 to 11 years (Zakay, 1998). This study sought the representation mode in which children could best express time concepts, especially the proper arrangement of events in a logical and temporal order. Usually, temporal order is examined and taught by 2D (2-dimensional) pictorial scripts. Using Burner's (1973, 1986, 1990) representation stages, we tested, the comparative effectiveness of VR (Virtual. Reality) as a mode of representation on children's conception, of sequential time with, the pictorial representation mode, the oral, and textual modes. The study involved 65 participants, aged 4 to 10, in 2 groups: kindergarten and school children. The study examined their ability to arrange episodes of a scenario in which, a temporal order exists, using the different modes of representation. The findings demonstrate substantial differences in the temporal order arrangement between the modes of representation. In the 3D VR representation, the subjects had a smaller number of errors than, in the other representations. These findings suggest that even though the pictorial mode is the most common way of examining and expressing temporal sequence, we should establish new ways of presenting sequencing so that children, will be better able to achieve their full cognitive and academic potential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-63
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Educational Computing Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2007


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