The what, why and how of bayesian clinical trials monitoring

Laurence S. Freedman, David J. Spiegelhalter, Mahesh K.B. Parmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


We discuss the advantages and limitations of group sequential methods for monitoring clinical trials data. We describe a Bayesian approach, based upon the use of sceptical prior distributions, that avoids some of the limitations of group sequential methods. We illustrate its use with data from a trial of levamisole plus 5‐Fluorouracil for colorectal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1371-1383
Number of pages13
JournalStatistics in Medicine
Issue number13-14
StatePublished - 15 Jul 1994
Externally publishedYes


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