The Two Faces of Transformational Leadership: Dependence and Empowerment"

R. Kark, B. Shamir, G. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Followers' identification with the leader and the organizational unit, dependence on the leader, and empowerment by the leader are often attributed to transformational leadership in organizations. However, these hypothesized outcomes have received very little attention in empirical studies. Using a sample of 888 bank employees working under 76 branch managers, the authors tested the relationships between transformational leadership and these outcomes. They found that transformational leadership was positively related to both followers' dependence and their empowerment and that personal identification mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' dependence on the leader, whereas social identification mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' empowerment. The authors discuss the implications of these findings to both theory and practice.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)243-255
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Volume88
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003

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