The Toll Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Flies and Mammals

Anat Shmueli, Tali Shalit, Eitan Okun, Galit Shohat-Ophir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Toll receptors, first identified to regulate embryogenesis and immune responses in the adult fly and subsequently defined as the principal sensors of infection in mammals, are increasingly appreciated for their impact on the homeostasis of the central as well as the peripheral nervous systems. Whereas in the context of immunity, the fly Toll and the mammalian TLR pathways have been researched in parallel, the expression pattern and functionality have largely been researched disparately. Herein, we provide data on the expression pattern of the Toll homologues, signaling components, and downstream effectors in ten different cell populations of the adult fly central nervous system (CNS). We have compared the expression of the different Toll pathways in the fly to the expression of TLRs in the mouse brain and discussed the implications with respect to commonalities, differences, and future perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-436
Number of pages18
JournalNeuroMolecular Medicine
Issue number4
Early online date1 Oct 2018
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • CNS
  • Drosophila
  • Innate immunity
  • TLR
  • Toll


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