Background: The association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following sepsis continues to be debated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and in-hospital clinical course and mortality in patients hospitalized with bacteremic sepsis using real-world data. Methods: A sampled cohort of patients hospitalized with bacteremic sepsis between October 2015 and December 2016 was identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. In-hospital mortality and length of stay were defined as the relevant outcomes. Patients were divided into 6 BMI (kg/m2) subgroups; (1) underweight ≤ 19, (2) normal-weight 20–25, (3) over-weight 26–30, (4) obese I 31–35, (5) obese II 36–39, and (6) obese stage III ≥ 40. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to find predictors of mortality, and a linear regression model was used to find predictors of an extended length of stay (LOS). Results: An estimated total of 90,760 hospitalizations for bacteremic sepsis across the U.S. were analyzed. The data showed a reverse-J-shaped relationship between BMI and study population outcomes, with the underweight patients (BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) suffering from higher mortality and longer LOS as did the normal-weight patients (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) when compared to the higher BMI groups. The seemingly protective effect of a higher BMI diminished in the highest BMI group (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). In the multivariable regression model, BMI subgroups of ≤19 kg/m2 and ≥40 kg/m2 were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: A reverse-J-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality was documented, confirming the “obesity paradox” in the real-world setting in patients hospitalized for sepsis and bacteremia.
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- BMI mortality
- bacteremic sepsis
- obesity paradox