The puzzle of liquid water: A very complex fluid

H. Eugene Stanley, S. V. Buldyrev, M. Canpolat, S. Havlin, O. Mishima, M. R. Sadr-Lahijany, A. Scala, F. W. Starr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Although H2O has been the topic of considerable research since the beginning of the century, its peculiar physical properties are still not well understood. We discuss recent experiments and simulations relating to the hypothesis that, in addition to the known critical point in water (below which two fluid phases - a lower-density gas and a higher-density liquid - coexist), there exists a "second" critical point at low temperatures (below which two liquid phases - a higher-density liquid and a lower-density liquid - can coexist).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-462
Number of pages10
JournalPhysica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 10 Sep 1999
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank C.A. Angell, K. Aoki, M.-C. Bellissent-Funel, P.G. Bebenedetti, H.-D. Lüdemann, J.K. Nielsen, P.H. Poole, S. Sastry, F. Sciortino, Y. Suzuki, and J. Teixeira for helpful discussions. This work was supported by CREST (Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology) of Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), BP, and National Science Foundation grant CH9728854.


  • Critical point
  • Fluid
  • Physical properties


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