The Prophylactic Effects of Natural Water-Soluble Antioxidant from Spinach and Apocynin in a Rabbit Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxemia

Liat Lomnitski, Michela Carbonatto, Varda Ben-Shaul, Sergio Peano, Angelo Conz, Lorena Corradin, Robert R. Maronpot, Shlomo Grossman, Abraham Nyska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Radical-scavenging antioxidants, as part of the cellular defense system, function to inhibit the formation and propagation of free radicals and active oxygen species formation. In previous studies we demonstrated that endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes oxidative stress and associated pathological changes in a rat model and that use of selected antioxidants was effective in reducing LPS-related lipid peroxidation product formation in the liver, as well as LPS-related pathological changes in different organs. In this study, several toxicological parameters (ie, clinical signs, blood chemistry, and histopathological changes) were compared among groups of male New Zealand rabbits injected with LPS following prophylactic pretreatment with either of 2 antioxidants, a group injected with LPS without pretreatment with antioxidants, groups injected with either of the 2 antioxidants only, and an untreated control group. The antioxidants used were a water-soluble natural antioxidant (NAO) from spinach and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Exposure to LPS alone was associated clinically with depression, tachypnea, outer ear vasodilation, and iris congestion; biochemically with a significant increase in blood total bilirubin, transaminase activity, and glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; macroscopically with multiple whitish areas in the liver; and histologically with hepatocellular focal necrosis and acute inflammation, thymic and splenic lymphoid necrosis and depletion, acute uveitis and hemorrhages in the ciliary processes, and decreased adrenal cortical cytoplasmic vacuolation considered consistent with depletion of steroidal hormone contents. The NAO had more effective prophylactic capacities than the apocynin. The protective effects were obvious in all investigated parameters. The results indicate the possible therapeutic efficacy of NAO in the treatment of clinical endotoxemia associated with gram-negative bacterial sepsis that is known to be associated with oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)588-600
Number of pages13
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Oxidative stress
  • adrenal
  • eye
  • inflammation
  • liver
  • spleen
  • thymus


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