The Present and Future of Verbal Lie Detection

Aldert Vrij, Pär Anders Granhag, Sharon Leal, Ronald P. Fisher, Steven M. Kleinman, Tzachi Ashkenazi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The last thirty years has seen a transformation in deception research from passively observing subjects’ nonverbal behavior to actively interviewing subjects to elicit verbal cues to deceit. Although significant progress has been made, there is still much work to do in the rapidly developing field of verbal lie detection. In this contribution, we briefly discuss the current status of the field. We outline the four interview protocols most frequently discussed in the scientific literature to date-Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID), Cognitive Credibility Assessment (CCA), Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE), and Verifiability Approach (VA)-followed by the empirical support for these protocols. We then present ideas on how to move the field of verbal lie detection forward.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Law
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9780197649169
ISBN (Print)9780197649138
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Oxford University Press 2023.


  • assessment criteria indicative of deception
  • cognitive credibility assessment
  • deception detection
  • forensic interviewing
  • strategic use of evidence
  • verbal lie detection
  • verifiability approach


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