The prehistory of TOEFL

Bernard Spolsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This article explores the origins of the TOEFL, with its distinctive charac teristics, in a 1961 conference, and seeks thereby to gain an understanding of how developments in language testing theory - and perhaps theory in general - are blended with the requirements and possibilities of real-life implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-118
Number of pages21
JournalLanguage Testing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 1990


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