There is growing evidence that post-transcriptional RNA modifications are highly dynamic and can be used to improve crop production. Although more than 172 unique types of RNA modifications have been identified throughout the kingdom of life, we are yet to leverage upon the understanding to optimize RNA modifications in crops to improve productivity. The contributions of internal mRNA modifications such as N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) methylations to embryonic development, root development, leaf morphogenesis, flowering, fruit ripening and stress response are sufficiently known, but the roles of the two most abundant RNA modifications, pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2′-O-methylation (Nm), in the cell remain unclear due to insufficient advances in high-throughput technologies in plant development. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the latest methods and insights gained in mapping internal Ψ and Nm and their unique properties in plants and other organisms. In addition, we discuss the limitations that remain in high-throughput technologies for qualitative and quantitative mapping of these RNA modifications and highlight future challenges in regulating the plant epitranscriptome.
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© 2022 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- RNA modifications
- next-generation sequencing