Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral feeding in the neonatal period to the end of the first year. Prior to hospital discharge, microlevel patterns of maternal touch and gaze were coded during feeding and nonfeeding interactions, global patterns of maternal adaptation were assessed, and infants' neurobehavioral status was tested. Psychomotor development was evaluated at 4 months. At 1 year, feeding difficulties were determined on the basis of maternal interview and direct observations of feeding interactions. Mothers of infants who exhibited feeding difficulties at 1 year showed less affectionate touch and gaze during nonfeeding interactions and more gaze aversion and lower adaptability during feeding interactions already in the neonatal period. Infants with feeding difficulties demonstrated poorer psychomotor performance at 4 months. Feeding interactions of infants with feeding difficulties at 1 year were characterized by higher maternal intrusiveness, lower infant involvement, and greater infant withdrawal. Less maternal affectionate touch and lower maternal adaptation in the neonatal period, poor infant psychomotor skills, and higher maternal intrusiveness and lower infant involvement at 1 year predicted feeding difficulties. The findings underscore the role of the relational components across the first year in the development of feeding difficulties.