Objective: To investigate the relations among wives' labeling of their husbands' psychiatric disorder or brain injury as an organic illness, the husbands' perceived control over their disabilities, and the husbands' mental health. Participants: Fifty-seven male clients of the Department of Rehabilitation, Israel's Ministry of Defence (26 with a psychiatric disorder and 31 with a traumatic brain injury) and their wives. Measures: Illness Labeling Questionnaire, the Perceived Control Over Illness Questionnaire, and the Mental Health Inventory. Results: Husbands' mental health was low but did not differ according to disability; wives' labeling of husbands' condition was negatively related to the husbands' mental health; husbands' perceived control was positively related to their mental health for both disabilities. Conclusion: Organic illness labels, even when adopted by the wives of the persons with the disability, seem to be negatively related to that person's mental health, whereas perceived control over a mental disorder or a brain injury seems to contribute positively to mental health, independently of how the disorder or injury is labeled.