Magnetism in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials has recently emerged as one of the most promising areas in condensed matter research, with many exciting emerging properties and significant potential for applications ranging from topological magnonics to low-power spintronics, quantum computing, and optical communications. In the brief time after their discovery, 2D magnets have blossomed into a rich area for investigation, where fundamental concepts in magnetism are challenged by the behavior of spins that can develop at the single layer limit. However, much effort is still needed in multiple fronts before 2D magnets can be routinely used for practical implementations. In this comprehensive review, prominent authors with expertise in complementary fields of 2D magnetism (i.e., synthesis, device engineering, magneto-optics, imaging, transport, mechanics, spin excitations, and theory and simulations) have joined together to provide a genome of current knowledge and a guideline for future developments in 2D magnetic materials research.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
X.R., C.R.D., E.J.T., and A.H.D. acknowledge support from the Center for Precision Assembly of Superstratic and Superatomic Solids, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC (award nos. DMR-2011738 and DMR-1420634), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (award no. FA9550-18-1-0020), and the Center on Programmable Quantum Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under award DE-SC0019443. H.H.K. acknowledges funding by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2021R1C1C1012394). This project was supported by the Ministry of Education (Singapore) through the Research Centre of Excellence program (grant EDUN C-33-18-279-V12, I-FIM). B.D.G., supported by a Wolfson Merit Award from the Royal Society and a Chair in Emerging Technology from the Royal Academy of Engineering, acknowledges the EPSRC (grant no. EP/P029892/1), the ERC (grant no. 725920), the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 820423. M.B.-G. is supported by a University Research Fellowship from the Royal Society (ref URF/R1/211484). L.Z. acknowledges support by NSF CAREER grant no. DMR-174774 and AFOSR grant no. FA9550- 21-1-0065. J.W. acknowledges EU project ASTERIQS and European Research Council via SMeL DFG GRK 2642 and FOR 2724. A.Y. acknowledges support from the Army Research Office (ARO) through grant no. W911NF-17-1-0023, the Quantum Science Center (QSC), a National Quantum Information Science Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF 9468, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials, NSF grant no. DMR-1231319. Y.L., L.B., and C.P. thank Milorad Milosevic for useful communication. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract no. DE-SC0012704. L.B. is supported by the US-DOE through the BES program, award DE-SC0002613. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory acknowledges support from the US-NSF Cooperative agreement Grant number DMR-1644779 and the state of Florida. The μSR experiments were carried out at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute using low background GPS (πM3 beamline) and high pressure GPD (μE1 beamline) instruments. The μSR time spectra were analysed using the free software package MUSRFIT. Z.G. gratefully acknowledges the financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF fellowships P2ZHP2-161980 and P300P2-177832). A.F., F.C., and M.C. acknowledge European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 881603 (Graphene Flagship), Spanish MICINN under the Maria de Maeztu Units of Excellence Programme (no. MDM-2016–0618) and under project no. RTI2018-094861-B-100, French ANR MAGICVALLEY (ANR-18-CE24-0007) and discussions with P. Seneor, B. Dlubak, V. Cros, N. Reyren, H. X. Yang, A. Hallal, F. Ibrahim, F. Bonell, and M. Jamet. S.T. and M.B. acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1904716, NSF DMR-2111812, NSF ECCS-2052527, and DOE-SC0020653. The work on van der Waals materials at Rice University was supported by NSF DMR-1700081, DMR-2100741, and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation under grant no. C-1839 (P. D.). A.M. and Z.W. acknowledge the support of the EPSRC Early Career Fellowship (EP/N007131/1), the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 865590), and the Royal Society International Exchanges 2019 Cost Share Program (IEC/R2/192001). S.J. acknowledges funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) project no. 320163632 (EV 196/2). This project made use of of the viking cluster, a high performance computing facility provided by the University of York. R.F.L.E. gratefully acknowledges the financial support of ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service via the embedded CSE programme (ecse1307). Q.H.W. acknowledges support from NSF grants QLCI-CG-1936882 and DMR-1906030. E.J.G.S. acknowledges computational resources through CIRRUS Tier-2 HPC Service (ec131 Cirrus Project) at EPCC ( http://www.cirrus.ac.uk ) funded by the University of Edinburgh and EPSRC (EP/P020267/1); ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service ( http://www.archer.ac.uk ) via Project d429. EJGS acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Science’s grant program “Europa-Excelencia” under grant number EUR2020-112238, the EPSRC Early Career Fellowship (EP/T021578/1), and the University of Edinburgh for funding support. A.B.-P. acknowledges support by the Generalitat Valenciana (CIDEGENT/2021/005).
© 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
- 2D magnetic materials
- atomistic spin dynamics
- magnetic genome
- magneto-optical effect
- neutron scattering
- van der Waals