The localization of the P. aeruginosa lectins (PA-I and PA-II) was studied using methods of osmotic shock, freezing and thawing and spheroplast formation. Very slight release of the two lectins occurred when P. aeruginosa was exposed to magnesium-osmotic shock or was frozen and thawed. Under these conditions, release of the periplasmic 5'-nucleotidase occurred, whereas no release of cytoplasmic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was detected. Formation of spheroplasts from P. aeruginosa by gradula removal of the bacterial envelopes revealed low lectin activity in the treatment fluids. Osmotic shock treatment of the lysozyme treated mureinoplasts resulted in low release of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the two lectins (10-13%) and a considerable activity (38.4%) of 5'-nucleotidase. The presence of the lectins on the outer and the cytoplasmic membranes enabled intact cells and spheroplasts of P. aeruginosa to agglutinate papain-treated human erythrocytes. These results indicate that the two lectins are located mainly in the cytoplasm with small fractions on the cytoplasmic and outer membranes and in the periplasmic space.