The “here and now” effect: JoMO, FoMO and the well-being of social media users

Tal Eitan, Tali Gazit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The rapid growth of social media has changed how people interact and connect with one another while also giving rise to new social-media associated psychological experiences, such as the well-known fear of missing out (FoMO) and the somewhat new phenomena, the joy of missing out (JoMO). This study aims to develop a new scale for measuring JoMO and explore its independent nature and relationships with well-being, social comparison and demographic variables. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 230 participants filled out an online survey, including questions about demographic details, well-being, social media engagement, social comparison, FoMO and a new JoMO scale. The data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling. Findings: The study confirmed the validity and reliability of the new JoMO scale in three sub-categories: active JoMO, passive JoMO and coping with disconnection. Younger individuals and those who were single, with weaker psychological well-being, higher engagement in social media and greater social comparison inclinations tended to experience higher levels of FoMO. Conversely, older individuals, women and those who enjoyed stronger psychological well-being and reduced social media engagement demonstrated higher levels of JoMO. The findings also suggest a complex relationship between FoMO and JoMO. Practical implications: The creation of an innovative JoMO measurement tool could transform both scholarly research and practical approaches to digital media interactions. This tool offers a deeper understanding of the intricate links between JoMO and factors such as social comparison and FoMO, paving the way for targeted interventions. By utilizing this, experts can foster healthier online behaviors and better psychological health through increased JoMO consciousness, reduced social media engagement and social comparisons, and FoMO management. Therefore, this fresh instrument assists in clarifying and improving how individuals engage with digital technology. Originality/value: This research validates the JoMO scale, enhancing our understanding of JoMO and its potential effects on well-being, as well as its associations with other variables. In addition, this research provides valuable insights for future studies on social media use and JoMO, and for developing effective strategies for managing healthier online experiences.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOnline Information Review
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • FoMO
  • JoMO
  • Social comparison
  • Social media
  • Well-being


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