The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

R. A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, A. Halpern, G. G. Sutton, R. Charlab, D. R. Nusskern, P. Wincker, A. G. Clark, J. M.C. Ribeiro, R. Wides, S. L. Salzberg, B. Loftus, M. Yandell, W. H. Majoros, D. B. Rusch, Z. Lai, C. L. Kraft, J. F. Abril, V. Anthouard, P. ArensburgerP. W. Atkinson, H. Baden, V. de Berardinis, D. Baldwin, V. Benes, J. Biedler, C. Blass, R. Bolanos, D. Boscus, M. Barnstead, S. Cai, A. Center, K. Chatuverdi, G. K. Christophides, M. A. Chrystal, M. Clamp, A. Cravchik, V. Curwen, A. Dana, A. Delcher, I. Dew, C. A. Evans, M. Flanigan, A. Grundschober-Freimoser, L. Friedli, Z. Gu, P. Guan, R. Guigo, M. E. Hillenmeyer, S. L. Hladun, J. R. Hogan, Y. S. Hong, J. Hoover, O. Jaillon, Z. Ke, C. Kodira, E. Kokoza, A. Koutsos, I. Letunic, A. Levitsky, Y. Liang, J. J. Lin, N. F. Lobo, J. R. Lopez, J. A. Malek, T. C. McIntosh, S. Meister, J. Miller, C. Mobarry, E. Mongin, S. D. Murphy, D. A. O'Brochta, C. Pfannkoch, R. Qi, M. A. Regier, K. Remington, H. Shao, M. V. Sharakhova, C. D. Sitter, J. Shetty, T. J. Smith, R. Strong, J. Sun, D. Thomasova, L. Q. Ton, P. Topalis, Z. Tu, M. F. Unger, B. Walenz, A. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wang, X. Wang, K. J. Woodford, J. R. Wortman, M. Wu, A. Yao, E. M. Zdobnov, H. Zhang, Q. Zhao, S. Zhao, S. C. Zhu, I. Zhimulev, M. Coluzzi, A. della Torre, C. W. Roth, C. Louis, F. Kalush, R. J. Mural, E. W. Myers, M. D. Adams, H. O. Smith, S. Broder, M. J. Gardner, C. M. Fraser, E. Birney, P. Bork, P. T. Brey, J. Craig Venter, J. Weissenbach, F. C. Kafatos, F. H. Collins, S. L. Hoffman

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1656 Scopus citations


Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year. Tenfold shotgun sequence coverage was obtained from the PEST strain of A. gambiae and assembled into scaffolds that span 278 million base pairs. A total of 91% of the genome was organized in 303 scaffolds; the largest scaffold was 23.1 million base pairs. There was substantial genetic variation within this strain, and the apparent existence of two haplotypes of approximately equal frequency ("dual haplotypes") in a substantial fraction of the genome likely reflects the outbred nature of the PEST strain. The sequence produced a conservative inference of more than 400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed a markedly bimodal density distribution. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed strong evidence for about 14,000 protein-encoding transcripts. Prominent expansions in specific families of proteins likely involved in cell adhesion and immunity were noted. An expressed sequence tag analysis of genes regulated by blood feeding provided insights into the physiological adaptations of a hematophagous insect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-149
Number of pages21
Issue number5591
StatePublished - 4 Oct 2002


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