The study reported in this article is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,400 students in grades 7 through 11 in 162 schools across Israel. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the differences between Jewish and Arab schools in the relationships between school-level variables - socioeconomic status (SES) of the school's neighborhood and students' families, school size and class size, school level (junior high and high), and school climate - and students' victimization reports (serious physical victimization, threats, moderate physical victimization, and verbal-social victimization). The results show that whereas school climate and school size seem to operate similarly across different cultural contexts, the SES of a school's neighborhood and students' families were associated with victimization for students in Arab schools only. Theoretical implications of these findings for school violence research in other cultures are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The findings are part of a large national survey of school violence in Israel. Students were given a structured,anonymous questionnaire in classrooms under the guidance of professional monitors.There was a shorter version for students in grades 4 through 6 and a longer version for students in grades 7 through 11. Students were free to withdraw from the study at any time and for any reason.Confidentiality was ensured to all participants. The study was supported by the Israeli Ministry of Education and conducted in accordance with its ethical guidelines.
- Hierarchical linear modeling
- Student victimization