The effects of pseudo-relevant 100% claims

Nira Munichor, Liat Levontin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The term “100%” represents perfection. Thus, it is not surprising that marketers believe that claims that contain this term (e.g., “100% organic”) can make products more appealing. This intuition is reflected in the extensive use of 100% claims to describe products' qualities. We discuss how the term 100% can be used to create a claim about perfection that seems to, but does not, provide meaningful information about a product's benefits (e.g., “100% juice”). By appearing to be, but actually not being, relevant to the judgment at hand, these so-called pseudo-relevant 100% claims may mislead consumers into making baseless positive assumptions regarding the focal product. Three studies examine how consumers respond to pseudo-relevant 100% claims. Our results suggest that pseudo-relevant 100% claims lead to lower product evaluations and consumption intentions than similar claims that include adjacent percentages or no numerical terms. Interestingly, they also suggest spillover effects onto evaluations of the products' customers. Our findings show that consumers pick up on the meaninglessness of the promise of perfection implied by the term “100%” in pseudo-relevant 100% claims, which causes them to perceive the product as less appealing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)719-733
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology and Marketing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Psychology & Marketing published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


  • 100%
  • meaninglessness
  • numerical information
  • percentages
  • product claim


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