The Effects of Practice Schedules on the Acquisition and Retention of a Grapho-Motor Skill in Young-Adults

Rafat Ghanamah, Esther Adi-Japha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Studies suggest that the amount of practice and practice protocols can affect the long-term retention of motor skills. We tested how a practice schedule affects young adults’ learning and retention of a simple graphomotor skill. Young adults trained on the construction of a letter-form by connecting dots (Invented Letter Task, ILT) in a single-session 24-blocks practice were compared to a distributed practice group afforded 6-blocks ILT practice on four consecutive days. The single-session practice outperformed the distributed practice group in the speed performance at the end of training but also 24-h post-training. However, the distributed practice group was comparable to the single-session group in terms of speed by 4–5 wk post-training and showed significant gains between 24-h and 4–5 wk post-training while the massed practice showed significant deterioration. Both groups were comparable in terms of accuracy at the three assessment time points. The results suggest that, even in a simple motor task, comparing single sessions to multi-session (distributed) practice could be a straightforward method for determining the efficiency of a practice schedule in young adults.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Education
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

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© 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Invented letter task
  • practice
  • retention
  • single-session/distributed
  • skill


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