The dual role of ozone-treated aluminum doped zinc oxide for CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells

Arun Singh Chouhan, Naga Prathibha Jasti, Sushobhan Avasthi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present perovskite solar cells using ozone-treated aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO:O3) in the dual role: as a transparent electrode and as an electron transport layer (ETL). Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) replaces the conventional FTO/TiO2(c)/TiO2(m) stack, considerably simplifying the fabrication process and reducing thermal budget. Photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that AZO is an effective ETL for perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films, with a large valence band offset and a small conduction band offset, but with a possible path for carrier recombination at the interface. We show that treating the surface of AZO with ozone gas (AZO:O3) improves the charge carrier extraction at the interface. Detailed characterization of the AZO:O3/CH3NH3PbI3 interface shows that ozone reduces the oxygen vacancies and de-dopes top 6–9 nm of the AZO surface. The gradient in doping induces an electric-field at the AZO surface which enhances the carrier extraction. AZO:O3/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Au devices show champion JSC, VOC and η of 20.92 mA/cm2, 1.03 V and 10.5% respectively. Meanwhile, average short-circuit current density (JSC) has improved from 16.32 mA/cm2 (AZO) to 19.74 mA/cm2 (AZO:O3). This is attributed to the induced electric-field at AZO:O3 surface leading to an enhanced extraction of photo-generated charge carriers. Devices hysteresis is also much lower than previously reported results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-257
Number of pages9
JournalOrganic Electronics
Volume66
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Funding

This work is supported in part under the U.S.−India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States (SERIIUS), funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Technology Program, under Subcontract DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado) and the Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology under Subcontract IUSSTF/JCERDC-SERIIUS/2012 dated 22nd Nov. 2012. The work is also supported by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, under project reference no: SB/S3/EECE/0163/2014. Authors would like to acknowledge the support of the National Nano Fabrication Center (NNfC) and Mico-Nano Characterization Facility (MNCF) for providing access to fabrication and characterization facilities. NNfC and MNCF are funded by a grant from the Ministry of Electronics and Information technology, Government of India. One of the authors acknowledges support from Young Faculty Research Fellowship under the “Visvesvaraya PhD Scheme for Electronics & IT” program by MeitY, Government of India. This work is supported in part under the U.S.−India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States (SERIIUS) , funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energ y ( Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences , and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy , Solar Energy Technology Program , under Subcontract DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado ) and the Government of India , through the Department of Science and Technology under Subcontract IUSSTF/JCERDC-SERIIUS/2012 dated 22nd Nov. 2012. The work is also supported by Department of Science and Technology , Government of India , under project reference no: SB/S3/EECE/0163/2014 . Authors would like to acknowledge the support of the National Nano Fabrication Center (NNfC) and Mico-Nano Characterization Facility (MNCF) for providing access to fabrication and characterization facilities. NNfC and MNCF are funded by a grant from the Ministry of Electronics and Information technology , Government of India. One of the authors acknowledges support from Young Faculty Research Fellowship under the “Visvesvaraya PhD Scheme for Electronics & IT” program by MeitY, Government of India.

FundersFunder number
NNfC
National Nano Fabrication Center
Office of Basic Energy Sciences , and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Solar Energy Research Institute for India
U.S.−India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research
U.S. Department of Energy
Solar Energy Technologies ProgramDE-AC36-08GO28308
Office of Science
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India
Department of Science and Technology, Government of KeralaSB/S3/EECE/0163/2014
Ministry of Electronics and Information technology
Department of Science and Technology

    Keywords

    • AZO
    • Electronic band-diagram
    • Interface
    • Ozone-gas treatment
    • Perovskite

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