The diverse etiology of hiccups

Ibrahim Marai, Yair Levi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Hiccup is a sudden contraction of the inspiratory muscles, followed by an abrupt closure of the glottis, thus producing a characteristic sound. Hiccups serve no known physiolgic function. Mostly, it is a benign symptom which terminates without treatment. Persisitent and intractable hiccups may indicate an organic disorder, thereby requiring evaluation based on history, physical examination, and selected laboratory tests. The treatment is based on the organic disorder, if it is found. The combination therapy with cisapride, omeprazole and baclofen is the most effective empiric treatment. We describe a number of case reports of patients with hiccups due to digitalis intoxication, ischemia of the inferior wall of the heart, peptic disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-13+79
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2003


  • Gastrpesphageal reflux
  • Hiccups
  • Inspiratory muscles
  • Organic disorder
  • Peptic disease


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