Gold nanorods (AuNRs) were conjugated with chlorin e6 (Ce6), a commonly used photosensitizer, to form AuNRs-Ce6 by electrostatic binding. Due to the strong surface plasmon resonance coupling, the fluorescence of conjugated Ce6 was enhanced 3-fold and the production of singlet oxygen was increased 1.4-fold. AuNRs-Ce6 were taken up by the HeLa and KB cell lines more easily than free Ce6, enhancing the intracellular delivery of Ce6. The increased cellular amount of Ce6 leads to a 3-fold more efficient photodynamic killing of these two cell lines. This demonstrates the potential of this approach to improve photodynamic detection and therapy of cancers.