The Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

G. Alimonti, C. Arpesella, H. Back, M. Balata, D. Bartolomei, A. de Bellefon, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, A. Bevilacqua, D. Bondi, S. Bonetti, A. Brigatti, B. Caccianiga, L. Cadonati, F. Calaprice, C. Carraro, G. Cecchet, R. Cereseto, A. Chavarria, M. ChenA. Chepurnov, A. Cubaiu, W. Czech, D. D'Angelo, F. Dalnoki-Veress, A. De Bari, E. De Haas, A. Derbin, M. Deutsch, A. Di Credico, A. Di Ludovico, G. Di Pietro, R. Eisenstein, F. Elisei, A. Etenko, F. von Feilitzsch, R. Fernholz, K. Fomenko, R. Ford, D. Franco, B. Freudiger, N. Gaertner, C. Galbiati, F. Gatti, S. Gazzana, V. Gehman, M. Giammarchi, D. Giugni, M. Goeger-Neff, T. Goldbrunner, A. Golubchikov, A. Goretti, C. Grieb, C. Hagner, T. Hagner, W. Hampel, E. Harding, S. Hardy, F. X. Hartmann, R. von Hentig, T. Hertrich, G. Heusser, M. Hult, A. Ianni, An Ianni, L. Ioannucci, K. Jaenner, M. Joyce, H. de Kerret, S. Kidner, J. Kiko, T. Kirsten, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, G. Korschinek, Yu Kozlov, D. Kryn, P. La Marche, V. Lagomarsino, M. Laubenstein, C. Lendvai, M. Leung, T. Lewke, E. Litvinovich, B. Loer, F. Loeser, P. Lombardi, L. Ludhova, I. Machulin, S. Malvezzi, A. Manco, J. Maneira, W. Maneschg, I. Manno, D. Manuzio, G. Manuzio, M. Marchelli, A. Martemianov, F. Masetti, U. Mazzucato, K. McCarty, D. McKinsey, Q. Meindl, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, D. Montanari, M. E. Monzani, V. Muratova, P. Musico, H. Neder, A. Nelson, L. Niedermeier, S. Nisi, L. Oberauer, M. Obolensky, M. Orsini, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, R. Parcells, S. Parmeggiano, M. Parodi, N. Pelliccia, L. Perasso, A. Pocar, R. Raghavan, G. Ranucci, W. Rau, A. Razeto, E. Resconi, P. Risso, A. Romani, D. Rountree, A. Sabelnikov, P. Saggese, R. Saldhana, C. Salvo, R. Scardaoni, D. Schimizzi, S. Schönert, K. H. Schubeck, T. Shutt, F. Siccardi, H. Simgen, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sonnenschein, F. Soricelli, A. Sotnikov, S. Sukhotin, C. Sule, Y. Suvorov, V. Tarasenkov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, D. Vignaud, S. Vitale, R. B. Vogelaar, V. Vyrodov, B. Williams, M. Wojcik, R. Wordel, M. Wurm, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, G. Zuzel

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355 Scopus citations


Borexino, a large volume detector for low energy neutrino spectroscopy, is currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the monoenergetic (862 keV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure liquid scintillator. This paper is mostly devoted to the description of the detector structure, the photomultipliers, the electronics, and the trigger and calibration systems. The real performance of the detector, which always meets, and sometimes exceeds, design expectations, is also shown. Some important aspects of the Borexino project, i.e. the fluid handling plants, the purification techniques and the filling procedures, are not covered in this paper and are, or will be, published elsewhere (see Introduction and Bibliography).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)568-593
Number of pages26
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Issue number3
StatePublished - 11 Mar 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We sincerely thank the funding agencies: INFN (Italy), NSF (USA), BMBF, DFG and MPG (Germany), Rosnauka (Russia), MNiSW (Poland), and we acknowledge the generous support of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. This work was also supported by the ILIAS integrating activity (Contract no. RII3-CT-2004-506222) as part of the EU FP6 program.


  • Liquid scintillators
  • Low background detectors
  • Solar neutrino


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