We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and infections during pregnancy. We included cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies and clinical trials, evaluating the frequency of infections in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. A search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science electronic databases and by manually searching references, until 23 March 2022, resulting in 16 studies being selected for review, with 111,649 women in the gestational diabetes mellitus group, and 1,429,659 in the controls. Cochrane’s Q test of heterogeneity and I² were used to assess heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Funnel plots and Egger test were used for assessment of publication bias. The results showed a significant association between gestational diabetes mellitus and infections (pooled-OR 1.3 95% CI [1.2–1.5]). Sub-analyses showed a significant association for urinary tract infections (pooled-OR of 1.2 95% CI [1.1–1.3]), bacterial infections (pooled-OR were 1.2 95% CI [1.1–1.4]), and SARS-CoV-2 (pooled-OR 1.5 95% CI [1.2–2.0]) but not to gingivitis or vaginal candidiasis. The results underscore the significance of acknowledging gestational diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for infections.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.
- gestational diabetes mellitus
- urinary tract infection (UTI)
- vaginal infections