The assessment of meta-cognition in different contexts: Individualized vs. peer assisted learning

Adina Shamir, Zemira R. Mevarech, Carmit Gida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance (recalling a series of pictures) were examined. Sixty-four 4-5-year-old children (M∈=∈5.14; SD∈=∈0.72), randomly selected from two Israeli kindergartens, participated in the study. Children were first asked in an individualized setting to recall a series of nine pictures; they were then asked (self-report) to tell the interviewer how they tried to recall the pictures. Finally, they were asked to assist a peer in recalling the pictures in a PAL situation. All the children's verbal and non-verbal behaviors were coded and analyzed. In addition, the children's language ability and Theory of Mind (TOM) were assessed. The findings indicated significant differences between children's declarative (self-report) and procedural meta-cognitive behavior in IL and PAL. Procedural meta-cognition in PAL and TOM predicted cognitive performance even when procedural meta-cognition in IL, declarative meta-cognition and language ability were controlled for. The findings are discussed in light of recent research on meta-cognition in young children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-61
Number of pages15
JournalMetacognition and Learning
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Meta-cognition
  • Peer Assisted Learning (PAL)
  • Theory of Mind (TOM) Cognitive development


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