Background. Mycophenolate mofetil is used as an immunosuppressive agent in liver transplant recipients. Its active compound, mycophenolic acid, also inhibits the replication of Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Based on a study indicating the effectiveness of mycophenolate mofetil on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in infected human hepatocyte cells in culture, we examined the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in suppressing HBV replication in lamivudine-resistant liver allograft recipients with recurrent HBV infection. Method. The study population included four liver allograft recipients (three males, one female), median age 51 years (range 41-57 years), with recurrent HBV infection who proved to be resistant to lamivudine. All received standard maintenance immunosuppression therapy. Median pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase level was 75 μ/L (range 39-182 μ/L) and HBV DNA level (quantitative dot blot), 70 pg/ml (range: 10-5000 pg/ml). Mycophenolate mofetil, 1.0 g p.o. twice daily, was administered for 8 weeks, concomitant with a reduction in the maintenance corticosteroid cyclosporine doses. Results. After mycophenolate mofetil was administered, the serum alanine aminotransferase level increased in two patients, did not change in one, and decreased in one. Serum HBV DNA levels increased in three patients and decreased (nonsignficantly) in only one patient. Two patients complained of abdominal pain and nausea. Conclusions. Mycophenolate mofetil at the dosage used is not effective in suppressing HBV replication after liver transplantation.