Teaching Hebrew as a second language for Arab middle and high school students with disabilities

Khaloob Kawar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


According to the inclusion law in Israel, students with disabilities can learn in mainstream classes with support services by teachers and specialists with special education training. The present study investigates the quality of teaching Hebrew as a second language (HSL) for Arab students with disabilities as reported by 35 teachers of HSL in mainstream middle and high schools who filled an online survey. Findings indicated a lack of knowledge among the teachers about students with disabilities who learn in inclusive settings. Moreover, the responses revealed that almost half of the teachers did not speak Hebrew fluently, and that they all simplified their language when administering their lessons. These findings raise questions regarding teaching HSL and the efficacy of inclusion. The present study identifies key areas for improvement including the need for competent L2 teachers for students with disabilities, and the implementation of an adapted accessible curriculum and an authentic classroom. Recommendations for teaching HSL for Arab students with disabilities are included.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Arabic
  • curriculum
  • disability
  • Hebrew
  • inclusion
  • second language


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