Taxonomy of moderators that govern explicit memory in individuals with intellectual disability: Integrative research review

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Abstract

This integrative research review aims to discover moderators that influence explicit memory performance of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We reviewed 47 explicit memory studies (since 1990) that were conducted in populations with ID. We suggest a taxonomy of moderators related to the participants, encoding and retrieval stages, where only an interrelation between the three dictates memory performance. We found that individuals with nonspecific ID can achieve the same level of recognition as individuals with typical development (TD) with the same chronological age when all encoding moderators are favorable. Recognition tests facilitate recollection more than free recall in all etiologies. The performance of individuals with ID was poorer than that of individuals with TD in all auditory memory tasks. Spatial location memory varied with task demands, practice, intention, age and intelligence. We conclude with suggestions for further research and educational implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-119
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • Down syndrome
  • Explicit memory
  • Intellectual disability
  • Moderators
  • Williams syndrome

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