It has recently become clear that cytokine expression by T cells involves epigenetic changes in chromatin structure, locus accessibility and DNA methylation that occur during differentiation of naive T cells into mature effector T cells. These changes require the coordinate actions of antigen- and cytokine-induced transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone-modifying enzymes and subset-specific transcription factors.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We apologise to all those whose work we could not cite because of space limitations. We thank S Agarwal for the original version of Fig. 1 (adapted from his PhD thesis, Harvard University) and D Lee, C Lopez-Rodriguez, S Feske and other members of the laboratory for helpful discussions. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants CA42471 and AI44432 (to AR). OA is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Cancer Research Institute.