In the recent decade, carbon dots have drawn immense attention and prompted intense investigation. The latest form of nanocarbon, the carbon nanodot, is attracting intensive research efforts, similar to its earlier analogues, namely, fullerene, carbon nanotube, and graphene. One outstanding feature that distinguishes carbon nanodots from other known forms of carbon materials is its water solubility owing to extensive surface functionalization (the presence of polar surface functional groups). These carbonaceous quantum dots, or carbon nanodots, have several advantages over traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. They possess outstanding photoluminescence, fluorescence, biocompatibility, biosensing and bioimaging, photostability, feedstock sustainability, extensive surface functionalization and bio-conjugation, excellent colloidal stability, eco-friendly synthesis (from organic matter such as glucose, coffee, tea, and grass to biomass waste-derived sources), low toxicity, and cost-effectiveness. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon dots have been received and new insight is provided. Presently known applications of carbon dots in the fields of bioimaging, drug delivery, sensing, and diagnosis were highlighted and future applications of these astounding materials are speculated.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is financially supported by the Department of Science & Technology—Fund for Improvement of S&T Infrastructure in Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (DST—FIST), India (Order No. SR/FST/CS-II/2022/252).
© 2023 by the authors.
- carbon nanodots
- low toxicity
- surface functionality