Carbon dots (CDs) are a novel type of carbon-based nanomaterial that has gained consid-erable attention for their unique optical properties, including tunable fluorescence, stability against photobleaching and photoblinking, and strong fluorescence, which is attributed to a large number of organic functional groups (amino groups, hydroxyl, ketonic, ester, and carboxyl groups, etc.). In addition, they also demonstrate high stability and electron mobility. This article reviews the topic of doped CDs with organic and inorganic atoms and molecules. Such doping leads to their func-tionalization to obtain desired physical and chemical properties for biomedical applications. We have mainly highlighted modification techniques, including doping, polymer capping, surface func-tionalization, nanocomposite and core-shell structures, which are aimed at their applications to the biomedical field, such as bioimaging, bio-sensor applications, neuron tissue engineering, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the key challenges to be addressed, the future direc-tions of research, and the possibilities of a complete hybrid format of CD-based materials.
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- Doped CDs
- Drug delivery
- Hybrid CDs
- Neuron tissue engineering