Structure and Functionality of an Alkylated LixSiyOzInterphase for High-Energy Cathodes from DNP-ssNMR Spectroscopy

Shira Haber, Rosy, Arka Saha, Olga Brontvein, Raanan Carmieli, Arava Zohar, Malachi Noked, Michal Leskes

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Degradation processes at the cathode-electrolyte interface are a major limitation in the development of high-energy lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Deposition of protective thin coating layers on the surface of high-energy cathodes is a promising approach to control interfacial reactions. However, rational design of effective protection layers is limited by the scarcity of analytical tools that can probe thin, disordered, and heterogeneous phases. Here we propose a new structural approach based on solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) for characterizing thin coating layers. We demonstrate the approach on an efficient alkylated LixSiyOz coating layer. By utilizing different sources for DNP, exogenous from nitroxide biradicals and endogenous from paramagnetic metal ion dopants, we reveal the outer and inner surface layers of the deposited artificial interphase and construct a structural model for the coating. In addition, lithium isotope exchange experiments provide direct evidence for the function of the surface layer, shedding light on its role in the enhanced rate performance of coated cathodes. The presented methodology and results advance us in identifying the key properties of effective coatings and may enable rational design of protective and ion-conducting surface layers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4694-4704
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number12
StatePublished - 31 Mar 2021

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