Statistical design of calibration studies

R. J. Carroll, D. Pee, L. S. Freedman, C. C. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


We investigated some design aspects of calibration studies. The specific situation addressed was one in which a large group is evaluated with a food- frequency questionnaire and a smaller calibration study is conducted through use of repeated food records or recalls, with the subjects in the calibration study constituting a random sample of those in the large group. In designing a calibration study, one may use large sample sizes and few food records per individual or smaller samples and more records per subject. Neither strategy is always preferable. Instead, the optimal method for a given study depends on the survey instrument used (24-h recalls or multiple-day food records) and the variables of interest.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1187S-1189S
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Apr 1997


  • 24-h recalls
  • Calibration studies
  • food diaries
  • food record
  • food-frequency questionnaires
  • measurement error
  • sample size
  • study design


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