Statistical Comparison of Processing Different Powder Feedstock in an HVOF Thermal Spray Process

Wolfgang Tillmann, Sonja Kuhnt, Ingor Theodor Baumann, Arkadius Kalka, Eva Christina Becker-Emden, Alexander Brinkhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Cermet coatings such as WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr are frequently applied by means of thermal spray processes to protect highly stressed surfaces against wear. The investigation of the respective spray materials and their coating properties and in-flight particle properties are often carried out in separate experiments. In this study, the coating characteristics (hardness, deposition rate, porosity, thickness) and in-flight particle properties (particle velocity and temperature) of three different WC-based powders and a Cr3C2-NiCr powder processed by means of an HVOF process are investigated as a function of some key process parameters such as kerosene flow rate, lambda, spray distance and feeder disc velocity. These parameters were varied within a design of experiments, whilst all other parameters were fixed. Both the design of experiments plan and the settings of the fixed parameters were defined identically. The in-flight particle properties and coating characteristics are statistically modeled as a function of the process parameters and their influences are compared. A well-selected, limited number of experimental runs using statistical design of experiment (DoE) enable this comparison. The deployed statistical models are generalized linear models with Gamma-distributed responses. The models show that particle velocity and particle temperature mainly depend on kerosene flow rate and spray distance. However, in the case of particle temperature, the model coefficients for Cr3C2-NiCr and WC powders have different signs, reflecting different qualitative behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1476-1489
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


The authors thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for the financial support for the Project “SFB 823: Statistik nichtlinearer dynamischer Prozesse”.

FundersFunder number
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftSFB 823


    • carbide powders
    • generalized linear models
    • high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)
    • statistical design of experiment


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