The study examined differences in division of household tasks and spousal support among a sample of educated dual-earner families from two national groups in Israel: Jews (n = 116), and Arabs (n = 163). The contribution of the spousal interaction variables (household roles and spousal support) toward explaining two dimensions of psychological well-being (burnout and life satisfaction) was also examined. The research findings indicate that in general, the Arabs maintain a more traditional orientation toward gender roles than their Jewish counterparts. Arab men showed a greater tendency to perform outside tasks than their Jewish counterparts who participate more in domestic chores. By contrast, no differences were found between the two groups with regard to the mutual support provided by spouses. Gender role attitudes were found to be a key predictor of the two psychological well-being dimensions in both national groups. Regarding sex differences, men of both nationalities were more likely than women to report that they perform all types of household tasks. Concomitantly, the women reported higher levels of burnout, while no differences between the sexes were found with respect to life satisfaction.