Space, time, and dynamics of binocular interactions

Marzouk Yassin, Maria Lev, Uri Polat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Binocular summation (BS), defined as the superiority of binocular over monocular visual performance, shows that thresholds are about 40% (a factor of 1.4) better in binocular than in monocular viewing. However, it was reported that different amounts of BS exist in a range from 1.4 to 2 values because BS is affected by the spatiotemporal parameters of the stimulus. Lateral interactions can be defined as the neuron’s ability to affect the neighboring neurons by either inhibiting or exciting their activity. We investigated the effect of the spatial and temporal domains on binocular interactions and BS under the lateral masking paradigm and how BS would be affected by lateral interactions via a lateral masking experiment. The two temporal alternative forced-choice (2TAFC) method was used. The stimuli consisted of a central vertically oriented Gabor target and high-contrast Gabor flankers positioned in two configurations (orthogonal or collinear) with target-flanker separations of either 2 or 3 wavelengths (λ), presented at 4 different presentation times (40, 80, 120, and 200 ms) using a different order of measurements across the different experiments. Opaque lenses were used to control the monocular and binocular vision. BS is absent at close distances (2λ), depending on the presentation time’s order, for the collinear but not for the orthogonal configuration. However, BS exists at more distant flankers (collinear and orthogonal, 3λ). BS is not uniform (1.4); it depends on the stimulus condition, the presentation times, the order, and the method that was used to control the monocular and binocular vision.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21449
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 5 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


Funding was provided by Israel Science Foundation (ISF, Grant No. 2494/21).

FundersFunder number
Israel Science Foundation2494/21


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