Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), caused by biofilms, are the most frequent health-care associated infections. Novel antibiofilm coatings are needed to increase the urinary catheters' life-span, decrease the prevalence of CAUTIs and reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. Herein, antibacterial zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were decorated with a biofilm matrix-degrading enzyme amylase (AM) and simultaneously deposited onto silicone urinary catheters in a one-step sonochemical process. The obtained nano-enabled coatings inhibited the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by 80% and 60%, respectively, for up to 7 days in vitro in a model of catheterized bladder with recirculation of artificial urine due to the complementary mode of antibacterial and antibiofilm action provided by the NPs and the enzyme. Over this period, the coatings did not induce toxicity to mammalian cell lines. In vivo, the nano-engineered ZnO@AM coated catheters demonstrated lower incidence of bacteriuria and prevent the early onset of CAUTIs in a rabbit model, compared to the animals treated with pristine silicone devices. The nano-functionalization of catheters with hybrid ZnO@AM coatings appears as a promising strategy for prevention and control of CAUTIs in the clinic.
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- Bacterial infections prevention
- Biofilm inhibition
- Zinc oxide nanoparticles