Sonochemical and soft-chemical intercalation of lithium ions into Mn0 2 polymorphs

V. G. Kumar, J. S. Gnanaraj, G. Salitra, A. Abramov, A. Gedanken, D. Aurbach, J. B. Soupart, J. C. Rousche

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11 Scopus citations


We explored routes for the synthesis of LiM-n2O4 spinel from five different polymorphs of MnO2 as the manganese source. These included a and β-MnO2 and three types of γ MnO2 (electrochemically produced EMD, and two types of chemically produced CMD). The synthesis included a lithiation step by mild reduction of the MnO2 with glucose in a LiOH solution, followed by calcination of the lithiated product. This route was shown in a previous study to produce highly pure, nanocrystalline LiMn2O4. The effect of the application of ultrasound radiation in the lithiation step on the quality of the products was also explored. It was found that the degree of lithiation, the purity of the LixMn2O4 spinel phase obtained and its electrochemical behavior as a Li insertion electrode material depend strongly on the nature of the MnO2 material in terms of crystal structure and morphology. The effect of ultrasound radiation was found to be detrimental. A very good electrochemical performance (capacity, stability) in repeated Li intercalation-deintercalation cycling was obtained with LiMn 2O4 originating from nanometric CMD. The tools for this study included XRD, TEM, surface area measurements (BET method), atomic absorption and standard electrochemical techniques (voltammetry, chronopotentiometry).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)957-967
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2004


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