Solvent-Directed Morphological Transformation in Covalent Organic Polymers

Xuan Thang Cao, Subodh Kumar, Ivan Nemec, Josef Kopp, Rajender S. Varma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Synthesis of bi-functional covalent organic polymers in two distinctive morphologies has been accomplished by simply switching the solvent from DMF to DMSO when 1,3,5-tribenzenecarboxyldehyde and 2,5-diaminobenzene sulfonic acid were reacted via Schiff base condensation reaction to afford covalent organic polymers (COPs) encompassing flower (F-COPDMF)- and circular (C-COPDMSO)-type morphologies. Chemical and morphological natures of the synthesized COPs were compared by characterization using TEM, SEM, XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis techniques. Besides diverse morphology, both the polymeric materials were found to comprise similar chemical natures bearing protonic acid–SO3H and Lewis base–C=N functionalities. Subsequently, both the COPs were evaluated for the synthesis of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by the dehydration of fructose to investigate their morphology-dependent catalytic activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number889679
JournalFrontiers in Materials
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Cao, Kumar, Nemec, Kopp and Varma.


XC acknowledges the financial support from the Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. SK and IN gratefully acknowledge the financial support from institutional sources of the Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic. IN would like to thank O. F. Fellner for assistance with measurement of X-ray powder diffraction. The authors thank J. Stráská and Eirini Ioannou for SEM/TEM analysis and M. Petr for HR-XPS measurements.

FundersFunder number
Department of Inorganic Chemistry
Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City
Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci


    • HMF
    • biomass upgradation
    • covalent organic polymer
    • morphological transformations
    • morphology-dependent activity


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